The Coronado Expedition


Unit 1

Discovery To Independence

Behavioral Objectives (Test Items)
Here are the specific tasks you will be called upon to perform successfully on the Unit 1 Exam. The information required for mastery of the reading objectives is contained in Chapters 1-4 of Beyond Myths and Legends: A Narrative History of Texas. The information required for mastery of the lecture objectives is contained in the lectures for this unit – “Where Worlds Collide: Challenging the Texas Stereotype,” “The Missions and Mission System in Texas,” and “Many a Cause, Many a Conflict: The Texas Revolution.”


Chapter 1 – “Before European Contact”

  1. Describe the manner in which human beings migrated to the Western Hemisphere across a land bridge now covered by the Bering Strait.
  2. Compare and contrast the Paleo-Indian culture with that of the Archaic Age being sure to cover lifestyles, settlement patterns, tools, etc.
  3. Identify the major changes in Native American life during the Woodland Era and the Agricultural Revolution.
  4. Identify and describe in detail the five dominant cultural groups in Texas before the arrival of Europeans concentrating on location and lifestyle.
  5. Identify the major physical regions and rivers in Texas. (maps, pp. 9,12)
  6. Identify the importance of each of the following:
    1. nomadic as opposed to sedentary
    2. the “American triad” of plants
    3. the impact of European diseases on Native Americans


Chapter 2 – “The Spanish Invasion of Texas, 1519-1821”

  1. Be familiar with each of the following Spanish New World expeditions/entradas being sure to identify the leader, purpose, areas to be explored/conquered, and effect upon Spanish interest in the area.
    1. Christopher Columbus
    2. Hernando Cortes
    3. Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
    4. Fray Marcos de Niza
    5. Fransisco Vasquez de Coronado
    6. Hernando de Soto/Luis de Moscoso
  2. Describe the activities of Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle, the reaction of the Spanish to his explorations and founding of Fort St. Louis, and be familiar with the founding of Spanish missions in East Texas, their withdrawal, and subsequent reestablishment.
  3. Identify the earliest Spanish settlements in Texas being sure to include each of the following:
    1. Nacogdoches
    2. San Antonio de Bexar/San Fernando de Bexar
    3. LaBahia/Goliad
    4. Laredo
  4. Be familiar with the 1757 inspection tour of the Spanish frontier by the Marques de Rubi, his specific recommendations, and the outcome of these recommendations.
  5. Identify and describe the social classes that developed in Spain’s New World empire.
  6. Describe the economic development of Spanish Texas contrasting agricultural and ranching activities.
  7. Trace the development of the Mexican Revolution against Spain (1810-1821).
  8. Be familiar with each of the following filibusters into Spanish Texas and how they illustrated Spain’s tenuous control of its northern frontier in the New World.
    1. Philip Nolan
    2. the Wilkinson probe
    3. the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition
    4. James Long


Chapter 3 – “Mexican Texas, 1821-1835”

  1. Identify and describe the various problems facing post-revolutionary Mexico and assess how such problems affected the new nation’s ability to administer Texas effectively.
  2. Identify the system of federalism implemented by the Mexican Constitution of 1824.
  3. Trace the never-ending struggle between Centralists and Federalists for control of the Mexican government.
  4. Explain why the Mexican government decided to allow immigration into Texas from the United States under the empressario colonization program
  5. Identify and describe the specifics of the Coahuila y Texas State Colonization Law of 1825.
  6. Discuss the problems that developed almost immediately in the effort to acculturate American immigrants into Mexican society through the empressario program.
  7. Describe the insurrection in Haden Edward’s East Texas colony leading to the short-lived Republic of Fredonia, how the Mexican government and Stephen F. Austin reacted, and how events affected Mexico’s attitudes towards Americans in Texas.
  8. Characterize the findings of Manuel Mier y Teran’s report in 1829 concerning the state of affairs in Texas.
  9. Identify specifics of the Law of April 6, 1830 and the reaction of residents, both Anglo and Hispanic, in Texas and Coahuila.
  10. Trace efforts by both Anglo and Hispanic Texans to abolish the Law of April 6, 1830 being sure to identify steps taken by:
    1. the October, 1832 convention in San Felipe
    2. the complaints voiced by Juan Seguin and other citizens of Bexar
    3. the 1833 convention held in San Felipe
  11. Be familiar with the eventual revocation of sections of the Law of April 6, 1830 dealing with Anglo immigration into Texas as well as steps taken by both the Mexican congress and the state legislature aimed at addressing Texans’ grievances.
  12. Describe the condition of Texas in the mid-1830s with respect to each of the following:
    1. population
    2. racial composition
    3. areas of settlement
    4. economic and fiscal characteristics


Chapter 4 – “Texas Revolution (October 1, 1835 – April 21, 1836)”

  1. Identify and evaluate the causes of the Texas Revolution, an argument termed by the text as “an interpretive nightmare.”
  2. Identify the specific governmental changes made under Siete Leyes and describe the reaction of Texans to the abandonment of the Constitution of 1824 and federalism.
  3. Identify actions taken by the San Felipe Consultation of 1835 as well as the reaction of Santa Anna and the Mexican government and the outbreak of hostilities.
  4. Identify and describe the significance of the following events:
    1. the Gonzales skirmish (October, 1835)
    2. the first Battle of San Antonio and the Alamo (December, 1835)
    3. the Siege of the Alamo (February-March, 1836)
    4. the Battle of Coletto Creek and Goliad Massacre/Execution (March, 1836)
    5. the Runaway Scrape (February – April, 1836)
    6. the Battle of San Jacinto (April 21, 1836)
  5. Characterize/evaluate the composition and nature of the Texas revolutionary forces and the military leadership of both Sam Houston and Santa Anna.
  6. Describe the steps taken by delegates meeting in convention at Washington-on-the-Brazos in March, 1836.
  7. Be familiar with the particulars of the Treaties of Velasco signed following the Battle of San Jacinto.

"Where Worlds Collide: Challenging the Texas Stereotype"

  1. Be familiar with misconceptions about the geography and environment of Texas popularly held by many Americans.
  2. Identify, describe in detail, and be able to locate the three major physical divisions of Texas and explain how these are actually extensions of major North American physical regions into Texas.
  3. Identify and be able to locate on a map each of the following rivers: Rio Grande, Pecos, Nueces, San Antonio, Guadalupe, Colorado, Brazos, Sabine, and Red.
  4. Be familiar with the rainfall patterns in Texas.
  5. Be familiar with the following weather phenomena which characterize Texas historically: drought, flooding, tornadoes, hurricanes.
  6. Compare and contrast in detail the three "worlds" of Texas (Easttex, Westex. amd Mextex) in terms of immigration sources, and distinctive culture as characteristics.
"The Missions and Mission System in Spanish Texas" (HIS1693.HUP.22537x)
  1. Explain how the Spanish mission system implemented in Texas was actually an outgrowth of the Reconquest of Iberia centuries earlier.
  2. Explain why Spain extended the mission system into Texas.
  3. Describe in detail the Spanish mission system in each of the following areas: (a.) its religious objective, (b.) its secular/governmental objective, (c.) governmental subsidization and support of missions.
  4. Describe the typical lifestyles of priests, Indians, and Spanish soldiers in Texas during the 1700s.
  5. Evaluate the effectiveness of Spanish mission efforts in each of the following areas being sure to identify problems faced,successes, failures: (a.) East Texas - San Fransisco de las Tejas, (b.) Goliad/La Bahia - Missions Espiritu Santo and Presidio La Bahia, (c.) San Antonio - Missions San Antonio de Valero, San Jose, Concepcion, Espada, and San Juan Capistrano.
"Many a Cause, Many a Conflict: The Texas Revolution" (HIS1693.HUP.22538x)
  1. Identify and describe in detail each of the following areas as causes of the Texas Revolution of 1836: (a.) the expansionist history of the United States, (b.) the special circumstances of post-revolutionary Mexico, (c.) racism, (d.) cultural differences - language, religion, lifestyles, etc., (e.) governmental differences, (f.) slavery, (g.) the physical isolation of Texas from Mexico City and Washington.